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Victorian Mori Jewelry

David Smith

May 21, 2022

Dichotomy Between Victorian Rembrance Mori Jewelry and Memento Mori Jewelry

Remembrance Jewelry

Victorian Britain and Mourning Jewelry

David Smith – MA Candidate in Global Humanities

Towson University

Dr. Jennifer Ballengee – Director of Global Humanities


Remembrance or mourning jewelry was a valuable and precious object to the Victorians. Necklaces or rings made with diamonds or gold were of value, but hair from a deceased loved one was ever more precious to the individual possessing it, because the jewelry was a physical component of the recently parted. Hair, teeth, photographs, or images that were engraved into jet coal were high commodities, not for numerical value, but for the value to rekindle memories of a lost loved one. Queen Victoria went through a 40-year mourning period for Prince Albert, which led to extensive mourning practices and etiquette for all Great Britain. Wearing black, willow weeds and durations of mourning became unsaid laws of the land. The jewelry became a focal point of mourning because it could hold a relic of the deceased. Just as in earlier centuries when people would honor kings, saints or celebrities, relics of the dead were value. Although, to the Victorians, the relic of the beloved deceased was more valuable to the individual. Memento mori is consistently associated with the mourning jewelry of Victorian Britain in the modern era. However, memento mori is the reminder of death and that one’s own life is precious. Mori jewelry of Victorian Great Britain was to remind how precious a beloved lost one was and a way to continue and keep the departed close to them. Charles Mackay says it best when quoted in Jane Wildgoose’s article “Beyond all Price,” “who would not treasure the lock of hair that once adorned the brow of the faithful wife now cold in death, or that hung down the neck of a beloved infant now sleeping under the sward?” With those words one could better understand the mentality of the Britain’s in their time of grieving and when death was all around, yet people lived long enough to make an impact on one’s life.


A common misconception that people have when thinking of Victorian mourning jewelry is that it represents Memento Mori, or to remind that death is around them and they were but fragile beings. On the contrary. Victorian mourning jewelry is a remembrance of lost loved ones. It is a way to keep them close to oneself and always have a piece of them for the rest of the mourner’s life. Beginning around the Dark Ages and up thru 1901, mourning jewelry was keeping a piece of a lost one. A Saint, a King, or a lost husband, the jewelry was meant to not only remember, but keep a physical part of a deceased one close. The jewelry could have a lock of hair, a tooth, a fragment of bone, a photo, or even an eye. Jane Wildgoose mentions that “mourning jewelry, often containing hair, was an important accessory and was itself the subject of protocols concerning when it should be worn, and perceptions about what constituted suitable materials, imagery and iconography in its design.”1However, it was not meant to be morbid, but able to look a relic and remember how the deceased touched their life. During the Victorian Era there was also protocol in mourning from clothing, time span to wear associated clothes, types of jewelry allowed, and a different time span of mourning between men and women. In Britain the aristocracy always set trends and Queen Victoria had set a trend with her 40-year time span of mourning for Prine Albert. Jill Newman mentions that the Queen “famously spent the next four decades shrouded in black dresses and jewels—lots of jewels. She had what you could call an obsession with jewelry and commissioned countless pieces to remember her dearly departed husband and close relatives.”2 Her appearance was duplicated by the citizens and set as code. In the 21st century, jewelers are creating new types of mourning jewelry, most post-modern version

1. Wildgoose, Jane. 2018. “Beyond All Price: Victorian Hair Jewelry, Commemoration & Story-Telling.” Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture 22 (6): 699–726. doi:10.1080/1362704X.2018.1533345. 2. Jill Newman, Town and Country, March 13, 2021, Accessed on 11/6/2021

of the Victorian Era. However, many in the modern era assume the jewelry was memento mori and remind them of their own mortality. Death was all around Victorian Britain, but their jewelry was not a reminder of death, but to mourn and remember the lost loved one which the widower had held dear.


Victorian mourning jewelry was meant to remember the departed and the love they had for them. However, when searching back in time, similar styles were meant for completely different uses and/ or meanings. Early forms of jewelry used hair or bone to the worship saints of the Catholic Church. In her book “Relics of Death in Literature and Culture,” Deborah Lutz mentions, “The sapphire amulet Charlemagne gave his wife in the ninth century, which reputedly contained the Virgin Mary’s hair and fragments of the True Cross, was thought to have the power to perpetuate love between them.”3 From the Dark Ages forward, churches and cathedrals would hold reliquary crosses and other wearable jewelry for pilgrims to view and pay homage. As we move forward into the 16th century, relic or memento mori jewelry made of hair or other artifacts from celebrities were made and sold to the public. There were many necklaces made with hair from King Louis the XIV, Voltaire, Mary Shelly, Queen Charlotte and others. Prior to the 16th century, hair that was used in jewelry, typically only contained a snippet placed into a locket or twisted into a ring. However, it was in Sweden during the 16th century when hair itself became jewelry. Marlyn Irvin Margulis states “hair jewelry was started by the Swedes in the 16th century to occupy themselves in the cold winters and to add to their meager salaries.”4 But

3. -Lutz, Deborah. 2015. Relics of Death in Victorian Literature and Culture. Cambridge Studies in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 4. Margulis, Marlyn Irvin. 2002. “Victorian Mourning Jewelry.” Antiques & Collecting Magazine 107 (3): 20. =6538912&site=eds-live&scope=site.

as the Swedes moved across the continent, they spread their ware and it slowly became very popular. Hair jewelry was used as fashion and then became a use of mourning for wearables and floral decorations at funerals. Marlyn also notes from Godey’s Armchair Magazine in May 1855 “Hair is at once the most delicate and lasting of our materials, and survives us, like love. It is so light, so gentle, so escaping from the idea of death, that with a lock of hair belonging to a child or friend, we may almost look up to heaven and compare notes with the angelic nature.”5 It wasn’t until Queen Victoria’s death in 1901 when hair jewelry became out of style.

Sometime around the 17th century, another jewelry fashion of memorial became trendy in Britain. Macabre black rings made from gold and enamel. The idea of rings used as mourning started in the middle ages and forward. During that time disease was all around and life was short. Jill Newman mentions that jewelry, beginning during the middle ages, was the “embodiment concept of memento mori and was decorated with icons of death, like skeletons and cross bones. Memento mori jewelry did not typically commemorate a particular person but represented the idea that one should live their life to the fullest because death isn’t far off.”6 However, starting in the 17th century, the rings were more elaborate and expensive. They created the theme of mourning or remembrance from losing a loved one. Jill Newman wrote that rings were “often purchased by the person in advance of their death and bequeathed to family members and friends posthumously to remember them. The memorial rings were inscribed with the person’s name and date of their death.”7 Prasad Mahabal Vaijayanti also notes that “It was also decided and told by them as to who gets to possess the ring. As the name suggests, they symbolized mourning of a person for another person who was a loved one.”8 It was in the 17th

5. Margulis, Marlyn Irvin 6. Jill Newman 7. Jill Newman 8. Prasad Mahabal Vaijayanti, Victorian Era: From Georgian to Edwardian, March 2020, Accessed 11/6/2021,

century in Britain when the idea of Memento Mori began to sway and the idea of mourning a lost loved one through jewelry was introduced. The jewelry became less the idea of death, but the remembrance and reverence of the deceased.

The Era of Victorian Mourning Jewelry

Remembrance and mourning of the deceased were split up into two different times of the Victorian Era. They were the Neo-Victorian and Late Victorian Era. The Neo-Victorian Era was filled with mixtures of high fashion and mourning using decorative death relic jewelry. Jet jewelry was popular from the beginning of the 19th century onto the third quarter of the century. Hair, teeth, and other relics from the deceased were mixed in with jewelry. Rosario Arias states “diamonds proliferated in the Victorian age, and it seems that this was, partly, due to a tradition imported from India to show off prestige through jewellery, and the influence that British colonial endeavors in India exerted upon Victorian domestic culture.”9 Before Prince Albert’s death, jewels and precious metals were used to adorn the mourning jewelry. Though mourning jewelry was in the fashion, it was still used to mourn those who they loved so dear. Deborah Lutz mentions in her book, “The dead still among us: Victorian Secular Relics,” that mourning jewelry was special

“only to a handful of people, or even to just one, and if that one died, then the relic became an unmarked grave, of worth to no one. They told a story, highly personal and intimate, sacred to few, alive only in a specific locale and set of years. For those who didn’t know the narrative of the donor, the relic became a materialized secret, a kind of

9. Arias, Rosario. 2020. “Sensoriality and Hair Jewellery in Neovictorian Fiction and Culture.” Lectora: Revista de Dones i Textualitat, no. 26 (January): 83–97. doi:10.1344/Lectora2020.26.6.

dead letter of the object world.”10

Death was all around the Neo and Late Victorians. Child mortality was high and life expectancy was low. Cholera and other diseases would constantly ravage London. It wasn’t until the late 1860’s when London finally had a developed sewer system that would clean up the streets and water supply. So, death was still right around the corner for most Victorian Britain’s.

There were some who carried Memento Mori jewelry with them to remind that death is just around the corner, but these were not used to mourn. Rosario Arias talks of a time about

“Dickens’ obsession with Mary Hogarth’s sudden death that took place on May 7, 1837, which greatly affected Dickens to the extent of failing to meet one submission deadline when he was working on Oliver Twist, as Bachman mentions, which had never occurred before. So traumatized was the writer, and so great was his loss that he decided to wear a memento mori —a locket that had belonged to Mary was turned into a mourning locket as it contained a lock of Mary’s hair. According to Bachman, it is possible to argue that this locket may have evoked so many associations that it finally found its way into fiction, in Oliver Twist: “Dickens’s entanglement with these material surrogates for Mary Hogarth impacted […] the direction and flow of the narrative”11

Dickens had taken Mary’s memento mori locket and turned it into a mori mourning locket. He had two relics of Mary: One was the locket and the other was a snippet of her hair. During the Neo-Victorian the uses of mourning jewelry was partly used for mourning and partly used for fashion. However, It was the Queen which set the standard for all, what was fashionable, and

10. Lutz, Deborah. "THE DEAD STILL AMONG US: VICTORIAN SECULAR RELICS, HAIR JEWELRY, AND DEATH CULTURE." Victorian Literature and Culture 39, no. 1 (03, 2011): 127-142. 11. Rosario Arias

what was mandatory. It was the Late Victorian Era when the standards and trends changed for all Britain’s and it was the Queen who set the mark for all to follow.

Queen Victoria and the Trend Setting

The Queen was not always a trend setter on purpose, but sometimes what she wore was in direct connection with the passion she had for Prince Albert while he was alive. Jill Newman mentions that “Queen Victoria’s passion for jewelry also reflected her love story with Prince Albert, who personally designed and commissioned numerous jewels for his wife during their marriage.”12 Prince Albert would shower her with his love by jewelry which she loved and her so to him. After Albert’s death in 1861, she kept that passion alive through jewelry which mourned his death, and the people of Britain would follow suit, because she is the Queen and people want to emulate the royalty. Newman talks about the jewelry and death prior to the death of Albert and how “mourning jewelry was often wickedly macabre with symbols including skulls, crossbones, and reapers.”13 Representing more of memento mori, but “That wouldn’t work for the romantic ruler who had enjoyed a loving relationship with her husband, so she commissioned remembrance jewels with floral and heart motifs, and miniature portraits of the deceased.”14

Prior to the death of Albert, they would swap lockets of hair and the Queen would place the hair in lockets embossed with remembrance jewels and other motifs. The Queen treasured Albert’s hair in her mourning. Jane Wildgoose refers to her mourning and how “after Albert’s premature death …the Queen clung ever more tenaciously to the relics of her husband.”15 The Queen would begin to dress only in black and jewels which would mourn him. Shortly after her mourning began, the queen began to set rules for the court and what her children were to wear,

12. Jill Newman 13. Jill Newman 14. Jill Newman 15. Jane Wildgoose

so to mourn Albert’s death. Creek and Johnny Van Houten states, “So complete was Victoria’s state of mourning, she withdrew almost completely from politics for several decades and brought the whole country into mourning with her. Until her death, she wore black widows’ weeds, demanding that her children did the same.”16 The rules for the court were to only wear black and specific jewels that represent mourning. During the first part of the Queen’s mourning, Jet jewelry was still popular. However, around 1875, she stopped using Jet and the people would follow suit. Pamela Wiggins writes on her website about an English paper called The Queen which mentions, “jet jewelry was ‘much in Vogue’ for ‘social wear’ as well as mourning adornment. The article suggested wearing less expensive French jet, which is actually very dark red or black glass, along with a naturally mined jet, which is more durable since it is made of carbon.” 17

Jet jewelry, whether it be French of British, was part of the day-to-day life of Buckingham Palace. The royal family was ordered to wear specific black mourning jewelry for Albert, and black clothes. Marlyn Irvin Margulis speaks of the Queen making it

“mandatory that members of her court wear black after Albert’s Death. This practice spread among her subjects, resulting in a demand for black jewelry. People followed court fashion so stringently that some of them were attired in black for many years, particularly because the infant mortality rate was high.18

The Queen had made it mandatory to wear black clothes and mourning jewelry in all court settings and whenever the royalty was seen out in public. The Queen’s mourning had set off trends for Britain to follow with rules and etiquette. The Queen used artifacts from Albert to help

16. Creek and Johnny Van Houten, Compass Rose Design, 2021, Accessed 11/6/2021, 17. Pamela Wiggins, The Spruce Crafts, Updated on 10/09/19, Accessed on 11/6/2021, 18. Marlyn Irvin Margulis

her mourning, dating back to early practices. Rosario Arias brings us to attention that “jewellery, containing Albert’s hair [that] reinforced the affinities between husband and wife in the process of materializing mourning. Mourning jewellery, including hair jewellery, became very fashionable, reputedly due to Queen Victoria’s mourning practices.”19 Also Rosario mentions the “ ‘Thing theory’ the significance of the object always extends beyond the merely economical exchange value associated with it by consumer theory”20 The “Thing” or “Object” of the jewelry to represented not of monetary value, but a thing that represents love and mourning for the one lost. However, to write about the Victoria Britain and their mourning jewelry, one would also have to mention their required attire and etiquette to follow once a loved one succumbs to mortality.

Victorian Britain and their Mourning Etiquette

When the King or Queen passed, specific attire and etiquette were required of all citizens for mourning with the recently deceased royal. When King George II died, the mourning period was for 3 months. However, when King George the III and his son Edward passed in quick succession, King George the IV cut the mourning to 6 weeks. The royal court would hold grand funerals and processions when a notable member perished. The Victorians would follow suit with their own as Sonia Bedikian mentions that death was an “an individually meaningful event, with lavish funerals, expensive processions, and feast-like wakes. Their funerals were pompous occasions to show off the wealth of the surviving relatives, as well as a time for reflection on one’s own mortality.”21 A culture had been created out of the requirement of mourning. A way to show off oneself during a funeral was one facet, but what lingered and took Britain over

19. Rosario Arias 20. Rosario Arias 21. Bedikian, Sonia A. 2008. “The Death of Mourning: From Victorian Crepe to the Little Black Dress.” Omega: Journal of Death & Dying 57 (1): 35–52. doi:10.2190/OM.57.1.c.

during the time of Queen Victoria’s rule was a long and drawn-out mourning etiquette with certain clothes, jewelry, and timespan when one had to wear the required attire.

Late-Victorian Britain had become very unfashionable in attire with the widespread usage of mourning clothing. The extended court wore mourning clothes all the time and it left a dark and dreary cloud over Britain. Sonia said the courts attire “not only cast a gloom over high society but also exercised a highly deleterious effect upon the dressmaking, millinery and hosiery trades.”22 The color black was the only color allowed for clothes during the first year of mourning. After one year, gray, mauve, and purple were permitted. The rules were more stringent on women than they were on men. Sonia Bedikian’s article “The Death of Mourning” speaks of

“a prescribed set of stringent rules for mourning wear. An appropriate dress for the occasion would be widow’s weeds, an ensemble of black dress, veil and bonnet, which the widow had to wear for two years to be socially acceptable. In fact, those who tried to avoid the expense and restriction of the formal mourning dress were chastised and ostracized. Widows could wear only fabrics that lacked color and luster.”23

When the first mourning was over, one year, she then altered her entire wardrobe to the second mourning where she could remove some heavy crepe and start adding jet jewelry. Second mourning would last for nine months and then enter ordinary mourning for three months. That would remove all crepe and then add ribbon, lace or embroidery. Afterwards she would enter half mourning that could from last six months up to a lifetime. Mourning for a lifetime did not happen often for men during Victorian Britain. In fact, less stringent rules were applied to men as were to women. Men were to wear all black for the first year. After that time had ended, they

22. Bedikian, Sonia A. 23. Bedikian, Sonia A.

could either continue to mourn with dark colors for clothes and only mourning jewelry, or they could go back to a regular attire which they wore before mourning began. Sonia Bedikian said Charles Dickens and other social reformers complained that “mourning made its demands at the worst possible time when money was short and when grief had enervated the mourners.”24 The mourning warehouses also were the objects of scorn for taking advantage of their customers. The dress may have been dull and drear, but the jewelry was gorgeous and has sparked a renaissance of macabre jewelry today.

Types of Mourning Jewelry

The resurgence of Victorian mourning or remembrance jewelry is used as macabre or memento mori today. The definition of memento mori is an artistic creation to remind people of their own mortality. The mourning jewelry of Victorian Britain was not to remind oneself of their own mortality, but it was to remember and keep the one they lost close to them. The jewelry is only simply named as mori or death jewelry. Two popular types of mori jewelry of the 1800’s was the mori ring and the mori necklace. Karen Roldan states ”Wearing a mori ring is a sign of love and respect for a deceased loved one. It will often have the dates of birth and death, name, and perhaps a motto inscribed. There might even be an image of the deceased engraved into the ring if there is enough room.”25 The rings were massively used during Victoria’s reign, but lost favor after her death. They would soon gain a resurgence in 1930’s and never disappeared afterwards.

The mori necklace gained a resurgence and popularity in the 1800’s after it was used prior to Victoria’s rule. The necklace was like the ring with dates of birth and death from the

24. Sonia Bedikian 25. Karen Roldan, US Urns Online, 2021, Accessed on 11/6/2021,

deceased. The necklace though took on many different facets. Some would hold hair in a locket, a picture with hair or without, a motto the deceased went by, flowers from the funeral, a snuffed candle or a pendant in a shape of an hourglass. Hair was widely used with mourning necklaces since it was a physical piece of the deceased that never withered away. Lutz wrote of a correspondence between two friends in Victorian Britain which one said to the other, “A lock of hair from the head of some beloved one is often prized above gold or gems, for it is not a mere purchasable gift, but actually a portion of themselves, present with us when they are absent, surviving while they are moldering in the grave.”26 The hair was a physical symbol, encapsulated in a locket perhaps, which the mourner could gaze at and reminisce of their dearly departed.

Mourning the departed through jewelry was such commonplace that industries produced many types. Either mass produced or specially made, the mourning jewelry trade was big business in the 1800’s. Jet Jewelry was of high demand up to the early 1870’s. The Van Hooten’s state that “Jet is a type of petrified wood, produced through a natural process of pressure and water applied to trees from the ancient Araucariaceae family. The hard jet found at Whitby England dates to the early Jurassic period and is perfectly suited to jewelry making.”27 Jet produces static electricity when rubbed, thus giving the mourner a spark of memory possibly. Most jet jewelry was mass produced and carved by illiterate craftsman who would carve beautiful motifs of the deceased or a symbol of grief one was in. Although, it was common for names to be mis-spelled on the back of the jet jewelry. Polished jet with no mourning symbolism was likely only a fashion piece and not for mourning.

Mourning jewelry, for people who could afford, would make the jewelry fashionable

26. Lutz, Deborah. Relics of Death in Victorian Literature and Culture 27. Creek and Johnny Van Houten

while staying in the codes conduct. Black was almost always the color used for mourning jewelry, though white materials were sometimes used as well. Pamela Wiggins tells us that ivory was “used in early mourning pieces as symbols of innocence so not all jewelry of this nature will be solid black. This was especially true when memorializing a child or a young woman.”28 Pearls and other white objects were used occasionally. Precious metals, mainly silver, were commonly used with construction of lockets, rings, bordering around pendants, and sometimes droplets used in designs. Crosses were acceptable expression, though they were primarily made in black, e.g., jet.

Mourning jewelry were mostly black and had symbols such as crosses incorporated into them. Anchors signified hope for the mourner to stay grounded in their time of grief. Lutz remarks of the “butterfly and dragonfly motifs. Victorians embraced the dragonfly especially for its agility and rapidly changing life cycle.”29 With Victorians there was a privation with their jewelry. They were not intended to embrace comforts but to forego them in their time of grief. Symbols were important to show their chastity to themselves with respecting the deceased. Many other types of totems used were as Karen Roldan documents:

• Clasped hands to symbolize an everlasting bond

• Crossed swords

• Bones

• Skulls

• Arrows

• Chrysalis

• Lamb to represent innocence; used primarily for children

• Curtains to picture the end of their ‘final act’30

However, the hair, was the most common item used. The hair alongside a picture is the closet an object can be to a have a direct connection with the deceased that the mourner could carry with them so they would always have a piece of their dearly departed.


The Modern Era

In the 21st century, we may not have high mortality in the western world, but everyone will still depart someone who is held dear. Mourning today is much different than Victorian Britain. However, mourning jewelry has made a renaissance into a macabre memento mori fashion. While it is illegal to mine jet now, French jet (black glass) or onyx are carved into motifs for fashionable jewelry by independent jewelers. The embracement of death and reminder of it as it was in the 16th and 17th century, has become popular alongside the steampunk fashions of the 20th and 21st centuries. Newman made a remark in referring to the pandemic with “people feeling especially sentimental during this time. Mourning jewelry speaks to the feeling that life is precious, and it speaks to where we are now.”31 The styles are not as simplistic as the death relics. Modern memento mori jewelry brings in charms, talismans, and cabochons layered and stacked to create a post-modern pop. Hair has come back as well, but it is used in many types of art, not only in jewelry.

Jewelers and artists are using hair as memorial, memento mori, and as installation. Hair 30. Karen Roldan

31. Jill Newman

has been used in jewelry, floral motifs, and other mediums. But in the 21st century, there are stricter rules on using relics from the deceased. Rosario Arias comments from the Guidance for the Care of Human Remains Act and how it was amended in 2008, “to include in the category of human remains ‘hair and nails, taken post-mortem’. In other words, hair removed from people after they have died is classified as a form of human remains. Therefore, ethical concerns come to the fore when using hair remnants to create works of art.”32 The uniqueness of hair and being a part of the body that does not decay as the rest of the body, which gives some artist power to evoke anger and tragedy. Rosario also mentions of the artist Loren Schwerd using hair pieces of African American victims found after the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005. Loren’s work was “drawing on the Victorian hairwork and the power of those hair artefacts as death keepsakes to evoke past bodies and lives, as well as to underline endurance and permanence through the object.”33 The memorial correlates to the ‘Black Lives Matter’ and the disproportionate abuse and neglect towards African Americans.


Victorian Britain did have high mortality just as in earlier centuries. Prior to the early 1800’s, artist would inject the memento mori theme into art to remind people of their own mortality. Whether it would be 17th century Dutch paintings or 18th century rings with skulls, they were to remind them that death is around the corner and is fragile. Before Victoria’s reign, the mourning jewelry was for remembrance of royalty, celebrities or saints. It wasn’t until the times of the industrial revolution in England when the British began to show their remorse through attire. Clothing and jewelry etiquette began to be unsaid requirements when one was in mourning. The hair from a passed family member became more valuable than gold or silver

32. Rosario Arias 33. Rosario Arias

because precious metals were not a physical component of the individual being mourned. Referring to the 17th century Dutch painting, the image could be an angled mirrored skull, or a deceased individual about to be devoured by a griffin. These were not to mourn any individual but to remind the viewer that their life is precious. A mori necklace is to remind the person who is wearing the jewelry and how precious a deceased loved one was to them. Mori jewelry was to remember the loved ones who departed and reminisce on the memories.


Lutz, Deborah. "THE DEAD STILL AMONG US: VICTORIAN SECULAR RELICS, HAIR JEWELRY, AND DEATH CULTURE." Victorian Literature and Culture 39, no. 1 (03, 2011): 127-142.

Arias, Rosario. 2020. “Senoriality and Hair Jewellery in NeoVictorian Fiction and Culture.” Lectora: Revista de Dones i Textualitat, no. 26 (January): 83–97. doi:10.1344/Lectora 2020.26.6.

Wildgoose, Jane. 2018. “Beyond All Price: Victorian Hair Jewelry, Commemoration & Story- Telling.” Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture 22 (6): 699–726. doi:10.1080/1362704X.2018.1533345.

Margulis, Marlyn Irvin. 2002. “Victorian Mourning Jewelry.” Antiques & Collecting Magazine 107 (3): 20. &site=eds-live&scope=site.

Lutz, Deborah. 2015. Relics of Death in Victorian Literature and Culture. Cambridge Studies in Nineteenth-Century Literature and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. s-live&scope=site.

Bedikian, Sonia A. 2008. “The Death of Mourning: From Victorian Crepe to the Little Black Dress.” Omega: Journal of Death & Dying 57 (1): 35–52. doi:10.2190/OM.57.1.c.

Becky Little, National Geographic, February 11, 2011, accessed 11/6/2021, jewelry-death-history

Creek and Johnny Van Houten, Compass Rose Design, 2021, Accessed 11/6/2021,

Pamela Wiggins, The Spruce Crafts, Updated on 10/09/19, Accessed on 11/6/2021,

Jill Newman, Town and Country, March 13, 2021, Accessed on 11/6/2021 victoria-mourning-jewelry-sothebys/

Karen Roldan, US Urns Online, 2021, Accessed on 11/6/2021,

Prasad Mahabal Vaijayanti, Victorian Era: From Georgian to Edwardian, March 2020, Accessed 11/6/2021,

Olly Gerrish, The Antique Jewellery Company, 2021, Accessed 11/6/2021,

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